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Surgical Pleth Index (SPI) Publications Reference List 2020

SPI is not available for sale in USA and has not been cleared or approved by FDA.

SSI, or Surgical Stress Index, was the first working name for the measurement. Therefore, this name may come up in some of the early research references.

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PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL ARTICLES

Funcke, S., Pinnschmidt, H. O., Wesseler, S., Brinkmann, C., Beyer, B., Jazbutyte, V., … Nitzschke, R. (2020). Guiding Opioid Administration by 3 Different Analgesia Nociception Monitoring Indices During General Anesthesia Alters Intraoperative Sufentanil Consumption and Stress Hormone Release: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 130(5), 1264–1273.

Hung, K. C., Chen, J. Y., Chu, C. C., & Sun, C. K. (2020). Perioperative Surgical Pleth Index as a Stress Indicator for the Prevention of Perioperative Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, (0123456789), 7–8.

Lee, J. H., Choi, B. M., Jung, Y. R., Lee, Y. H., Bang, J. Y., & Noh, G. J. (2020). Evaluation of Surgical Pleth Index and Analgesia Nociception Index as surrogate pain measures in conscious postoperative patients: an observational study. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 34(5), 1087–1093.

Meijer, F. S., Niesters, M., van Velzen, M., Martini, C. H., Olofsen, E., Edry, R., … Boon, M. (2020). Does nociception monitor-guided anesthesia affect opioid consumption? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 34(4), 629–641.

Park, M. H., Kim, B. J., & Kim, G. S. (2020). Prediction of postoperative pain and analgesic requirements using surgical pleth index: a observational study. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 34(3), 583–587.

Stasiowski, M., Missir, A., Pluta, A., Szumera, I., Stasiak, M., Szopa, W., … Kaspera, W. (2020). Influence of infiltration anaesthesia on perioperative outcomes following lumbar discectomy under surgical pleth index-guided general anaesthesia: A preliminary report from a randomised controlled prospective trial. Advances in Medical Sciences, 65(1), 149–155.

Defresne, A., Harrison, M., Clement, F., Barvais, L., & Bonhomme, V. (2019). Two different methods to assess sympathetic tone during general anesthesia lead to different findings. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 33(3), 463–469.

Dostalova, V., Schreiberova, J., Bartos, M., Kukralova, L., & Dostal, P. (2019). Surgical pleth index and analgesia nociception index for intraoperative analgesia in patients undergoing neurosurgical spinal procedures: A comparative randomized study. Minerva Anestesiologica, 85(12), 1265–1272.

Ghanty, I., & Schraag, S. (2019). The quantification and monitoring of intraoperative nociception levels in thoracic surgery: A review. Journal of Thoracic Disease, 11(9), 4059–4071.

Ho, C. N., Fu, P. H., Chen, J. Y., Hung, K. C., Chang, J. H., Peng, C. K., & Yang, A. C. (2019). Heart rate variability and surgical pleth index under anesthesia in poor and normal sleepers. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing.

Jain, N., Gera, A., Sharma, B., Sood, J., & Chugh, P. (2019). Comparison of Surgical Pleth Index-guided analgesia using fentanyl versus conventional analgesia technique in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Minerva Anestesiologica, 85(4), 358–365.

Jiao, Y., He, B., Tong, X., Xia, R., Zhang, C., & Shi, X. (2019). Intraoperative monitoring of nociception for opioid administration: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Minerva Anestesiologica, 85(5), 522–530.

Ledowski, T. (2019). Objective monitoring of nociception: a review of current commercial solutions. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 123(2), e312–e321.

Ledowski, T., Schneider, M., Gruenewald, M., Goyal, R. K., Teo, S. R., & Hruby, J. (2019). Surgical pleth index: prospective validation of the score to predict moderate-to-severe postoperative pain. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 123(2), e328–e332.

Wang, M., Wang, X., Bao, R., Zhu, W. zhong, Bian, J. jun, Deng, X. ming, … Wang, J. feng. (2019). Predictive value of the surgical pleth index for the hemodynamic responses to trachea intubation and skin incision. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, (0123456789), 1–7.

Choi, B. M., Park, C., Lee, Y. H., Shin, H., Lee, S. H., Jeong, S., … Lee, B. (2018). Development of a new analgesic index using nasal photoplethysmography. Anaesthesia, 73(9), 1123–1130.

Defresne, A., Barvais, L., Clement, F., & Bonhomme, V. (2018). Standardised noxious stimulation-guided individual adjustment of remifentanil target-controlled infusion to prevent haemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and surgical incision: A randomised controlled trial. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 35(3), 173–183.

Park, Ji H., Kim, D. H., Yoo, S. K., Lim, H. J., Lee, J. W., Ahn, W. S., … Noh, G. J. (2018). The analgesic potency dose of remifentanil to minimize stress response induced by intubation and measurement uncertainty of Surgical Pleth Index. Minerva Anestesiologica, 84(5), 546–555.

Ryu, K.-H., Kim, H.-S., Kim, Y.-H., Song, K., Lim, T.-Y., & Choi, W.-J. (2018). Does Equi–Minimum Alveolar Concentration Value Ensure Equivalent Analgesic or Hypnotic Potency? Anesthesiology, 128(6), 1092–1098.

Ryu, K. H., Kim, J. A., Ko, D. C., Lee, S. H., & Choi, W. J. (2018). Desflurane reduces intraoperative remifentanil requirements more than sevoflurane: comparison using surgical pleth index-guided analgesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 121(5), 1115–1122.

Won, Y. J., Lim, B. G., Kim, Y. S., Lee, M., & Kim, H. (2018). Usefulness of surgical pleth index-guided analgesia during general anesthesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The Journal of International Medical Research, 46(11), 4386–4398.

Yang, Y. La, Seok, H. S., Noh, G. J., Choi, B. M., & Shin, H. (2018). Postoperative pain assessment indices based on photoplethysmography waveform analysis. Frontiers in Physiology, 9(AUG), 1–11.

Funcke, S., Sauerlaender, S., Pinnschmidt, H. O., Saugel, B., Bremer, K., Reuter, D. A., … Reuter, D. A. (2017). Validation of Innovative Techniques for Monitoring Nociception during General Anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 127(2), 272–283.

Ledowski, T., Sommerfield, D., Slevin, L., Conrad, J., & Von Ungern-Sternberg, B. S. (2017). Surgical pleth index: Prediction of postoperative pain in children? British Journal of Anaesthesia, 119(5), 979–983.

Gruenewald, M., & Dempfle, A. (2017). Analgesia/nociception monitoring for opioid guidance: Meta-Analysis of randomized clinical trials. Minerva Anestesiologica, 83(2), 200–213.

Ryu, K., Song, K., Kim, J., Kim, E., & Kim, S. H. (2017). Comparison of the analgesic properties of sevoflurane and desflurane using surgical pleth index at equi-minimum alveolar concentration. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 14(10), 994–1001.

Won, Y. J., Lim, B. G., Yeo, G. E., Lee, M. K., Lee, D. K., Kim, H., … Kong, M. H. (2017). The effect of nicardipine on the surgical pleth index during thyroidectomy under general anesthesia: A prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial. Medicine (United States), 96(6), 1–6.

Hannivoort, L. N., Vereecke, H. E. M., Proost, J. H., Heyse, B. E. K., Eleveld, D. J., Bouillon, T. W., … Luginbühl, M. (2016). Probability to tolerate laryngoscopy and noxious stimulation response index as general indicators of the anaesthetic potency of sevoflurane, propofol, and remifentanil. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 116(5), 624–631.

Harju, J., Kalliomäki, M. L., Leppikangas, H., Kiviharju, M., & Yli-Hankala, A. (2016). Surgical pleth index in children younger than 24 months of age: A randomized double-blinded trial. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 117(3), 358–364.

Ledowski, T., Burke, J., & Hruby, J. (2016). Surgical pleth index: Prediction of postoperative pain and influence of arousal. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 117(3), 371–374.

Won, Y. J., Lim, B. G., Lee, S. H., Park, S., Kim, H., Lee, I. O., & Kong, M. H. (2016). Comparison of relative oxycodone consumption in surgical pleth index-guided analgesia versus conventional analgesia during sevoflurane anesthesia A randomized controlled trial. Medicine (United States), 95(35), 1–6.

Bergmann, I., Szabanowski, T., Bruer, A., Crozier, T. A., Bauer, M., & Hinz, J. M. (2015). Remifentanil added to sufentanil-sevoflurane anesthesia suppresses hemodynamic and metabolic stress responses to intense surgical stimuli more effectively than high-dose sufentanil-sevoflurane alone. BMC Anesthesiology, 15(1), 1–8.

Colombo, R., Marchi, A., Borghi, B., Fossali, T., Tobaldini, E., Guzzetti, S., & Raimondi, F. (2015). Influence of gravitational sympathetic stimulation on the surgical plethysmographic index. Physiological Research, 64(2), 183–189.

Colombo, R., Raimondi, F., Rech, R., Castelli, A., Fossali, T., Marchi, A., … Guzzetti, S. (2015). Surgical Pleth Index guided analgesia blunts the intraoperative sympathetic response to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Minerva Anestesiologica, 81(8), 837–845.

Constant, I., & Sabourdin, N. (2015). Monitoring depth of anesthesia: From consciousness to nociception. A window on subcortical brain activity. Paediatric Anaesthesia, 25(1), 73–82.

Cowen, R., Stasiowska, M. K., Laycock, H., & Bantel, C. (2015). Assessing pain objectively : the use of physiological markers. Anaesthesia, 70, 828–847.

Gruenewald, M., Herz, J., Schoenherr, T., Thee, C., Steinfath, M., & Bein, B. (2015). Measurement of the Nociceptive Balance by Analgesia Nociception Index and Surgical Pleth Index during Sevoflurane-Remifentanil Anaesthesia. Minerva Anestesiologica, 81(May), 480–489.

Park, Ji Hye, Lim, B. G., Kim, H., Lee, I. O., Kong, M. H., & Kim, N. S. (2015). Comparison of Surgical Pleth Index–guided Analgesia with Conventional Analgesia Practices in Children. Anesthesiology, 122(6), 1280–1287.

Thee, C., Ilies, C., Gruenewald, M., Kleinschmidt, A., Steinfath, M., & Bein, B. (2015). Reliability of the surgical Pleth index for assessment of postoperative pain: A pilot study. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 32(1), 44–48.

Colombo, R., Raimondi, F., Corona, A., Rivetti, I., Pagani, F., Della Porta, V., & Guzzetti, S. (2014). Comparison of the Surgical Pleth Index with autonomic nervous system modulation on cardiac activity during general anaesthesia: A randomised cross-over study. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 31(2), 76–84.

Gruenewald, M., Willms, S., Broch, O., Kott, M., Steinfath, M., & Bein, B. (2014). Sufentanil administration guided by surgical pleth index vs standard practice during sevoflurane anaesthesia: A randomized controlled pilot study. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 112(5), 898–905.

Heyse, B. E. K., Proost, J. H., Hannivoort, L. N., Eleveld, D. J., Lüginbuhl, M., Struys, M. M., & Vereecke, H. E. M. (2014). A Response Surface Model Approach for Continuous Measures of Hypnotic and Analgesic Effect during Sevoflurane-Remifentanil Interaction. Anesthesiology, 120(6), 1390–1399.

Bergmann, I., Göhner, A., Crozier, T. A., Hesjedal, B., Wiese, C. H., Popov, A. F., … Hinz, J. M. (2013). Surgical pleth index-guided remifentanil administration reduces remifentanil and propofol consumption and shortens recovery times in outpatient anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 110(4), 622–628.

Gruenewald, M., & Ilies, C. (2013). Monitoring the nociception-anti-nociception balance. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology, 27(2), 235–247.

Gruenewald, M., Ilies, C., Herz, J., Schoenherr, T., Fudickar, A., Höcker, J., & Bein, B. (2013). Influence of nociceptive stimulation on analgesia nociception index (ANI) during propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 110(6), 1024–1030.

Chen, X., Thee, C., Gruenewald, M., Ilies, C., Höcker, J., Hanss, R., … Bein, B. (2012). Correlation of surgical pleth index with stress hormones during propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia. The Scientific World Journal, 2012.

Hamunen, K., Kontinen, V., Hakala, E., Talke, P., Paloheimo, M. P. J., & Kalso, E. (2012). Effect of pain on autonomic nervous system indices derived from photoplethysmography in healthy volunteers. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 108(5), 838–844.

Hans, P., Verscheure, S., Uutela, K., Hans, G., & Bonhomme, V. (2012). Effect of a fluid challenge on the Surgical Pleth Index uring stable propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 56(6), 787–796.

Ilies, C., Ludwigs, J., Gruenewald, M., Thee, C., Hanf, J., Hanss, R., … Bein, B. (2012). The effect of posture and anaesthetic technique on the surgical pleth index. Anaesthesia, 67(5), 508–513.

Bonhomme, V., Uutela, K., Hans, G., Maquoi, I., Born, J., Brichant, J., … Lamy, M. (2010). Comparison of the Surgical Pleth Index™ with haemodynamic variables to assess nociception–anti-nociception balance during general anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 106(1), 101–111.

Höcker, J., Broch, O., Gräsner, J. T., Gruenewald, M., Ilies, C., Steinfath, M., & Bein, B. (2010). Surgical stress index in response to pacemaker stimulation or atropine. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 105(2), 150–154.

Ilies, Christoph, Gruenewald, M., Ludwigs, J., Thee, C., Höcker, J., Hanss, R., … Bein, B. (2010). Evaluation of the surgical stress index during spinal and general anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 105(4), 533–537.

Ledowski, T., Pascoe, E., Ang, B., Schmarbeck, T., Clarke, M. W., Fuller, C., & Kapoor, V. (2010). Monitoring of intra-operative nociception: skin conductance and surgical stress index versus stress hormone plasma levels. Anaesthesia, 65(10), 1001–1006.

Mustola, S., Parkkari, T., Uutela, K., Huiku, M., Kymäläinen, M., & Toivonen, J. (2010). Performance of Surgical Stress Index during Sevoflurane-Fentanyl and Isoflurane-Fentanyl Anesthesia. Anesthesiology Research and Practice, 1–5.

Mustola, S., & Toivonen, J. (2010). Effect-site concentration of remifentanil attenuating surgical stress index responses to intubation of the trachea. Anaesthesia, 65(6), 581–585.

Paloheimo, M. P. J., Sahanne, S., & Uutela, K. H. (2010). Autonomic nervous system state: The effect of general anaesthesia and bilateral tonsillectomy after unilateral infiltration of lidocaine. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 104(5), 587–595.

Gruenewald, M., Meybohm, P., Ilies, C., Höcker, J., Hanss, R., Scholz, J., & Bein, B. (2009). Influence of different remifentanil concentrations on the performance of the surgical stress index to detect a standardized painful stimulus during sevoflurane anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 103(4), 586–593.

Korhonen, I., & Yli-Hankala, A. M. (2009). Photoplethysmography and nociception: Review Article. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 53(8), 975–985.

Ledowski, T., Ang, B., Schmarbeck, T., & Rhodes, J. (2009). Monitoring of sympathetic tone to assess postoperative pain: skin conductance vs surgical stress index. Anaesthesia, 64(7), 727–731.

Kallio, H., Lindberg, L. I., Majander, A. S., Uutela, K. H., Niskanen, M. L., & Paloheimo, M. P. J. (2008). Measurement of surgical stress in anaesthetized children. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 101(3), 383–389.

Wennervirta, J. E., Hynynen, M. J., Koivusalo, A.-M., Uutela, K., Huiku, M., & Vakkuri, A. P. (2008). Surgical stress index as a measure of nociception/antinociception balance during general anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 52(8), 1038–1045.

Ahonen, J., Jokela, R., Uutela, K., & Huiku, M. (2007). Surgical stress index reflects surgical stress in gynaecological laparoscopic day- case surgery. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 98(4), 456–461.

Huiku, M., Uutela, K., van Gils, M., Korhonen, I., Kymäläinen, M., Meriläinen, P. T., … Takala, P. (2007). Assessment of surgical stress during general anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 98(4), 447–455.

Struys, M., Vanpeteghem, C., Huiku, M., Uutela, K. H., Blyaert, N. B. K., & Mortier, E. P. (2007). Changes in a surgical stress index in response to standardized pain stimuli during propofol--remifentanil infusion. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 99(3), 359–367.

PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL ARTICLES LISTED BY CATEGORY

Betablockers

Ahonen, J., Jokela, R., Uutela, K., & Huiku, M. (2007). Surgical stress index reflects surgical stress in gynaecological laparoscopic day- case surgery. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 98(4), 456–461.

Desflurane

Dostalova, V., Schreiberova, J., Bartos, M., Kukralova, L., & Dostal, P. (2019). Surgical pleth index and analgesia nociception index for intraoperative analgesia in patients undergoing neurosurgical spinal procedures: A comparative randomized study. Minerva Anestesiologica, 85(12), 1265–1272.

Ryu, K. H., Kim, J. A., Ko, D. C., Lee, S. H., & Choi, W. J. (2018). Desflurane reduces intraoperative remifentanil requirements more than sevoflurane: comparison using surgical pleth index-guided analgesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 121(5), 1115–1122.

Ryu, K.-H., Kim, H.-S., Kim, Y.-H., Song, K., Lim, T.-Y., & Choi, W.-J. (2018). Does Equi–Minimum Alveolar Concentration Value Ensure Equivalent Analgesic or Hypnotic Potency? Anesthesiology, 128(6), 1092–1098.

Ryu, K., Song, K., Kim, J., Kim, E., & Kim, S. H. (2017). Comparison of the analgesic properties of sevoflurane and desflurane using surgical pleth index at equi-minimum alveolar concentration. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 14(10), 994–1001.

Won, Y. J., Lim, B. G., Yeo, G. E., Lee, M. K., Lee, D. K., Kim, H., … Kong, M. H. (2017). The effect of nicardipine on the surgical pleth index during thyroidectomy under general anesthesia: A prospective double-blind randomized controlled trial. Medicine (United States), 96(6), 1–6.

Wennervirta, J. E., Hynynen, M. J., Koivusalo, A.-M., Uutela, K., Huiku, M., & Vakkuri, A. P. (2008). Surgical stress index as a measure of nociception/antinociception balance during general anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 52(8), 1038–1045.

Isoflurane

Park, M. H., Kim, B. J., & Kim, G. S. (2020). Prediction of postoperative pain and analgesic requirements using surgical pleth index: a observational study. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 34(3), 583–587.

Mustola, S., Parkkari, T., Uutela, K., Huiku, M., Kymäläinen, M., & Toivonen, J. (2010). Performance of Surgical Stress Index during Sevoflurane-Fentanyl and Isoflurane-Fentanyl Anesthesia. Anesthesiology Research and Practice, 1–5.

Outcome

Funcke, S., Pinnschmidt, H. O., Wesseler, S., Brinkmann, C., Beyer, B., Jazbutyte, V., … Nitzschke, R. (2020). Guiding Opioid Administration by 3 Different Analgesia Nociception Monitoring Indices During General Anesthesia Alters Intraoperative Sufentanil Consumption and Stress Hormone Release: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 130(5), 1264–1273.

Park, M. H., Kim, B. J., & Kim, G. S. (2020). Prediction of postoperative pain and analgesic requirements using surgical pleth index: a observational study. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 34(3), 583–587.

Jain, N., Gera, A., Sharma, B., Sood, J., & Chugh, P. (2019). Comparison of Surgical Pleth Index-guided analgesia using fentanyl versus conventional analgesia technique in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Minerva Anestesiologica, 85(4), 358–365.

Won, Y. J., Lim, B. G., Lee, S. H., Park, S., Kim, H., Lee, I. O., & Kong, M. H. (2016). Comparison of relative oxycodone consumption in surgical pleth index-guided analgesia versus conventional analgesia during sevoflurane anesthesia A randomized controlled trial. Medicine (United States), 95(35), 1–6.

Park, Ji Hye, Lim, B. G., Kim, H., Lee, I. O., Kong, M. H., & Kim, N. S. (2015). Comparison of Surgical Pleth Index–guided Analgesia with Conventional Analgesia Practices in Children. Anesthesiology, 122(6), 1280–1287.

Bergmann, I., Göhner, A., Crozier, T. A., Hesjedal, B., Wiese, C. H., Popov, A. F., … Hinz, J. M. (2013). Surgical pleth index-guided remifentanil administration reduces remifentanil and propofol consumption and shortens recovery times in outpatient anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 110(4), 622–628.

Chen, X., Thee, C., Gruenewald, M., Wnent, J., Illies, C., Hoecker, J., … Bein, B. (2010). Comparison of surgical stress index-guided analgesia with standard clinical practice during routine general anesthesia: A pilot study. Anesthesiology, 112(5), 1175–1183.

Pediatrics

Ledowski, T., Sommerfield, D., Slevin, L., Conrad, J., & Von Ungern-Sternberg, B. S. (2017). Surgical pleth index: Prediction of postoperative pain in children? British Journal of Anaesthesia, 119(5), 979–983.

Harju, J., Kalliomäki, M. L., Leppikangas, H., Kiviharju, M., & Yli-Hankala, A. (2016). Surgical pleth index in children younger than 24 months of age: A randomized double-blinded trial. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 117(3), 358–364.

Park, Ji Hye, Lim, B. G., Kim, H., Lee, I. O., Kong, M. H., & Kim, N. S. (2015). Comparison of Surgical Pleth Index–guided Analgesia with Conventional Analgesia Practices in Children. Anesthesiology, 122(6), 1280–1287.

Kallio, H., Lindberg, L. I., Majander, A. S., Uutela, K. H., Niskanen, M. L., & Paloheimo, M. P. J. (2008). Measurement of surgical stress in anaesthetized children. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 101(3), 383–389.

Postoperative pain

Lee, J. H., Choi, B. M., Jung, Y. R., Lee, Y. H., Bang, J. Y., & Noh, G. J. (2020). Evaluation of Surgical Pleth Index and Analgesia Nociception Index as surrogate pain measures in conscious postoperative patients: an observational study. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 34(5), 1087–1093.

Park, M. H., Kim, B. J., & Kim, G. S. (2020). Prediction of postoperative pain and analgesic requirements using surgical pleth index: a observational study. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 34(3), 583–587.

Jain, N., Gera, A., Sharma, B., Sood, J., & Chugh, P. (2019). Comparison of Surgical Pleth Index-guided analgesia using fentanyl versus conventional analgesia technique in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Minerva Anestesiologica, 85(4), 358–365.

Ledowski, T., Schneider, M., Gruenewald, M., Goyal, R. K., Teo, S. R., & Hruby, J. (2019). Surgical pleth index: prospective validation of the score to predict moderate-to-severe postoperative pain. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 123(2), e328–e332.

Yang, Y. La, Seok, H. S., Noh, G. J., Choi, B. M., & Shin, H. (2018). Postoperative pain assessment indices based on photoplethysmography waveform analysis. Frontiers in Physiology, 9(AUG), 1–11.

Ledowski, T., Sommerfield, D., Slevin, L., Conrad, J., & Von Ungern-Sternberg, B. S. (2017). Surgical pleth index: Prediction of postoperative pain in children? British Journal of Anaesthesia, 119(5), 979–983.

Ledowski, T., Burke, J., & Hruby, J. (2016). Surgical pleth index: Prediction of postoperative pain and influence of arousal. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 117(3), 371–374.

Thee, C., Ilies, C., Gruenewald, M., Kleinschmidt, A., Steinfath, M., & Bein, B. (2015). Reliability of the surgical Pleth index for assessment of postoperative pain: A pilot study. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 32(1), 44–48.

Gruenewald, M., & Ilies, C. (2013). Monitoring the nociception-anti-nociception balance. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology, 27(2), 235–247.

Ledowski, T., Ang, B., Schmarbeck, T., & Rhodes, J. (2009). Monitoring of sympathetic tone to assess postoperative pain: skin conductance vs surgical stress index. Anaesthesia, 64(7), 727–731.

Posture

Colombo, R., Marchi, A., Borghi, B., Fossali, T., Tobaldini, E., Guzzetti, S., & Raimondi, F. (2015). Influence of gravitational sympathetic stimulation on the surgical plethysmographic index. Physiological Research, 64(2), 183–189.

Ilies, C., Ludwigs, J., Gruenewald, M., Thee, C., Hanf, J., Hanss, R., … Bein, B. (2012). The effect of posture and anaesthetic technique on the surgical pleth index. Anaesthesia, 67(5), 508–513.

Propofol

Defresne, A., Barvais, L., Clement, F., & Bonhomme, V. (2018). Standardised noxious stimulation-guided individual adjustment of remifentanil target-controlled infusion to prevent haemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and surgical incision: A randomised controlled trial. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 35(3), 173–183.

Park, Ji H., Kim, D. H., Yoo, S. K., Lim, H. J., Lee, J. W., Ahn, W. S., … Noh, G. J. (2018). The analgesic potency dose of remifentanil to minimize stress response induced by intubation and measurement uncertainty of Surgical Pleth Index. Minerva Anestesiologica, 84(5), 546–555.

Funcke, S., Sauerlaender, S., Pinnschmidt, H. O., Saugel, B., Bremer, K., Reuter, D. A., … Reuter, D. A. (2017). Validation of Innovative Techniques for Monitoring Nociception during General Anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 127(2), 272–283.

Hannivoort, L. N., Vereecke, H. E. M., Proost, J. H., Heyse, B. E. K., Eleveld, D. J., Bouillon, T. W., … Luginbühl, M. (2016). Probability to tolerate laryngoscopy and noxious stimulation response index as general indicators of the anaesthetic potency of sevoflurane, propofol, and remifentanil. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 116(5), 624–631.

Colombo, R., Raimondi, F., Rech, R., Castelli, A., Fossali, T., Marchi, A., … Guzzetti, S. (2015). Surgical Pleth Index guided analgesia blunts the intraoperative sympathetic response to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Minerva Anestesiologica, 81(8), 837–845.

Bergmann, I., Göhner, A., Crozier, T. A., Hesjedal, B., Wiese, C. H., Popov, A. F., … Hinz, J. M. (2013). Surgical pleth index-guided remifentanil administration reduces remifentanil and propofol consumption and shortens recovery times in outpatient anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 110(4), 622–628.

Gruenewald, M., Ilies, C., Herz, J., Schoenherr, T., Fudickar, A., Höcker, J., & Bein, B. (2013). Influence of nociceptive stimulation on analgesia nociception index (ANI) during propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 110(6), 1024–1030.

Chen, X., Thee, C., Gruenewald, M., Ilies, C., Höcker, J., Hanss, R., … Bein, B. (2012). Correlation of surgical pleth index with stress hormones during propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia. The Scientific World Journal, 2012.

Hans, P., Verscheure, S., Uutela, K., Hans, G., & Bonhomme, V. (2012). Effect of a fluid challenge on the Surgical Pleth Index uring stable propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 56(6), 787–796.

Bonhomme, V., Uutela, K., Hans, G., Maquoi, I., Born, J., Brichant, J., … Lamy, M. (2010). Comparison of the Surgical Pleth Index™ with haemodynamic variables to assess nociception–anti-nociception balance during general anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 106(1), 101–111.

Chen, X., Thee, C., Gruenewald, M., Wnent, J., Illies, C., Hoecker, J., … Bein, B. (2010). Comparison of surgical stress index-guided analgesia with standard clinical practice during routine general anesthesia: A pilot study. Anesthesiology, 112(5), 1175–1183.

Ilies, Christoph, Gruenewald, M., Ludwigs, J., Thee, C., Höcker, J., Hanss, R., … Bein, B. (2010). Evaluation of the surgical stress index during spinal and general anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 105(4), 533–537.

Mustola, S., & Toivonen, J. (2010). Effect-site concentration of remifentanil attenuating surgical stress index responses to intubation of the trachea. Anaesthesia, 65(6), 581–585.

Huiku, M., Uutela, K., van Gils, M., Korhonen, I., Kymäläinen, M., Meriläinen, P. T., … Takala, P. (2007). Assessment of surgical stress during general anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 98(4), 447–455.

Struys, M., Vanpeteghem, C., Huiku, M., Uutela, K. H., Blyaert, N. B. K., & Mortier, E. P. (2007). Changes in a surgical stress index in response to standardized pain stimuli during propofol--remifentanil infusion. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 99(3), 359–367.

Review

Meijer, F. S., Niesters, M., van Velzen, M., Martini, C. H., Olofsen, E., Edry, R., … Boon, M. (2020). Does nociception monitor-guided anesthesia affect opioid consumption? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 34(4), 629–641.

Ghanty, I., & Schraag, S. (2019). The quantification and monitoring of intraoperative nociception levels in thoracic surgery: A review.

Journal of Thoracic Disease, 11(9), 4059–4071.

Jiao, Y., He, B., Tong, X., Xia, R., Zhang, C., & Shi, X. (2019). Intraoperative monitoring of nociception for opioid administration: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Minerva Anestesiologica, 85(5), 522–530.

Ledowski, T. (2019). Objective monitoring of nociception: a review of current commercial solutions. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 123(2), e312–e321.

Won, Y. J., Lim, B. G., Kim, Y. S., Lee, M., & Kim, H. (2018). Usefulness of surgical pleth index-guided analgesia during general anesthesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The Journal of International Medical Research, 46(11), 4386–4398.

Gruenewald, M., & Dempfle, A. (2017). Analgesia/nociception monitoring for opioid guidance: Meta-Analysis of randomized clinical trials. Minerva Anestesiologica, 83(2), 200–213.

Constant, I., & Sabourdin, N. (2015). Monitoring depth of anesthesia: From consciousness to nociception. A window on subcortical brain activity. Paediatric Anaesthesia, 25(1), 73–82.

Cowen, R., Stasiowska, M. K., Laycock, H., & Bantel, C. (2015). Assessing pain objectively : the use of physiological markers.

Anaesthesia, 70, 828–847.

Korhonen, I., & Yli-Hankala, A. M. (2009). Photoplethysmography and nociception: Review Article. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 53(8), 975–985.

Sevoflurane

Funcke, S., Pinnschmidt, H. O., Wesseler, S., Brinkmann, C., Beyer, B., Jazbutyte, V., … Nitzschke, R. (2020). Guiding Opioid Administration by 3 Different Analgesia Nociception Monitoring Indices During General Anesthesia Alters Intraoperative Sufentanil Consumption and Stress Hormone Release: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 130(5), 1264–1273.

Stasiowski, M., Missir, A., Pluta, A., Szumera, I., Stasiak, M., Szopa, W., … Kaspera, W. (2020). Influence of infiltration anaesthesia on perioperative outcomes following lumbar discectomy under surgical pleth index-guided general anaesthesia: A preliminary report from a randomised controlled prospective trial. Advances in Medical Sciences, 65(1), 149–155.

Ledowski, T., Schneider, M., Gruenewald, M., Goyal, R. K., Teo, S. R., & Hruby, J. (2019). Surgical pleth index: prospective validation of the score to predict moderate-to-severe postoperative pain. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 123(2), e328–e332.

Wang, M., Wang, X., Bao, R., Zhu, W. zhong, Bian, J. jun, Deng, X. ming, … Wang, J. feng. (2019). Predictive value of the surgical pleth index for the hemodynamic responses to trachea intubation and skin incision. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, (0123456789), 1–7.

Ryu, K. H., Kim, J. A., Ko, D. C., Lee, S. H., & Choi, W. J. (2018). Desflurane reduces intraoperative remifentanil requirements more than sevoflurane: comparison using surgical pleth index-guided analgesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 121(5), 1115–1122.

Ryu, K.-H., Kim, H.-S., Kim, Y.-H., Song, K., Lim, T.-Y., & Choi, W.-J. (2018). Does Equi–Minimum Alveolar Concentration Value Ensure Equivalent Analgesic or Hypnotic Potency? Anesthesiology, 128(6), 1092–1098.

Ledowski, T., Sommerfield, D., Slevin, L., Conrad, J., & Von Ungern-Sternberg, B. S. (2017). Surgical pleth index: Prediction of postoperative pain in children? British Journal of Anaesthesia, 119(5), 979–983.

Ryu, K., Song, K., Kim, J., Kim, E., & Kim, S. H. (2017). Comparison of the analgesic properties of sevoflurane and desflurane using surgical pleth index at equi-minimum alveolar concentration. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 14(10), 994–1001.

Hannivoort, L. N., Vereecke, H. E. M., Proost, J. H., Heyse, B. E. K., Eleveld, D. J., Bouillon, T. W., … Luginbühl, M. (2016). Probability to tolerate laryngoscopy and noxious stimulation response index as general indicators of the anaesthetic potency of sevoflurane, propofol, and remifentanil. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 116(5), 624–631.

Harju, J., Kalliomäki, M. L., Leppikangas, H., Kiviharju, M., & Yli-Hankala, A. (2016). Surgical pleth index in children younger than 24 months of age: A randomized double-blinded trial. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 117(3), 358–364.

Ledowski, T., Burke, J., & Hruby, J. (2016). Surgical pleth index: Prediction of postoperative pain and influence of arousal. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 117(3), 371–374.

Won, Y. J., Lim, B. G., Lee, S. H., Park, S., Kim, H., Lee, I. O., & Kong, M. H. (2016). Comparison of relative oxycodone consumption in surgical pleth index-guided analgesia versus conventional analgesia during sevoflurane anesthesia A randomized controlled trial. Medicine (United States), 95(35), 1–6.

Bergmann, I., Szabanowski, T., Bruer, A., Crozier, T. A., Bauer, M., & Hinz, J. M. (2015). Remifentanil added to sufentanil-sevoflurane anesthesia suppresses hemodynamic and metabolic stress responses to intense surgical stimuli more effectively than high-dose sufentanil-sevoflurane alone. BMC Anesthesiology, 15(1), 1–8.

Gruenewald, M., Herz, J., Schoenherr, T., Thee, C., Steinfath, M., & Bein, B. (2015). Measurement of the Nociceptive Balance by Analgesia Nociception Index and Surgical Pleth Index during Sevoflurane-Remifentanil Anaesthesia. Minerva Anestesiologica, 81(May), 480–489.

Park, Ji Hye, Lim, B. G., Kim, H., Lee, I. O., Kong, M. H., & Kim, N. S. (2015). Comparison of Surgical Pleth Index–guided Analgesia with Conventional Analgesia Practices in Children. Anesthesiology, 122(6), 1280–1287.

Gruenewald, M., Willms, S., Broch, O., Kott, M., Steinfath, M., & Bein, B. (2014). Sufentanil administration guided by surgical pleth index vs standard practice during sevoflurane anaesthesia: A randomized controlled pilot study. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 112(5), 898–905.

Heyse, B. E. K., Proost, J. H., Hannivoort, L. N., Eleveld, D. J., Lüginbuhl, M., Struys, M. M., & Vereecke, H. E. M. (2014). A Response Surface Model Approach for Continuous Measures of Hypnotic and Analgesic Effect during Sevoflurane-Remifentanil Interaction. Anesthesiology, 120(6), 1390–1399.

Ledowski, T., Pascoe, E., Ang, B., Schmarbeck, T., Clarke, M. W., Fuller, C., & Kapoor, V. (2010). Monitoring of intra-operative nociception: skin conductance and surgical stress index versus stress hormone plasma levels. Anaesthesia, 65(10), 1001–1006.

Mustola, S., Parkkari, T., Uutela, K., Huiku, M., Kymäläinen, M., & Toivonen, J. (2010). Performance of Surgical Stress Index during Sevoflurane-Fentanyl and Isoflurane-Fentanyl Anesthesia. Anesthesiology Research and Practice, 1–5.

Paloheimo, M. P. J., Sahanne, S., & Uutela, K. H. (2010). Autonomic nervous system state: The effect of general anaesthesia and bilateral tonsillectomy after unilateral infiltration of lidocaine. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 104(5), 587–595.

Gruenewald, M., Meybohm, P., Ilies, C., Höcker, J., Hanss, R., Scholz, J., & Bein, B. (2009). Influence of different remifentanil concentrations on the performance of the surgical stress index to detect a standardized painful stimulus during sevoflurane anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 103(4), 586–593.

Nerve block

Stasiowski, M., Missir, A., Pluta, A., Szumera, I., Stasiak, M., Szopa, W., … Kaspera, W. (2020). Influence of infiltration anaesthesia on perioperative outcomes following lumbar discectomy under surgical pleth index-guided general anaesthesia: A preliminary report from a randomised controlled prospective trial. Advances in Medical Sciences, 65(1), 149–155.

Harju, J., Kalliomäki, M. L., Leppikangas, H., Kiviharju, M., & Yli-Hankala, A. (2016). Surgical pleth index in children younger than 24 months of age: A randomized double-blinded trial. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 117(3), 358–364.

Ilies, C., Ludwigs, J., Gruenewald, M., Thee, C., Hanf, J., Hanss, R., … Bein, B. (2012). The effect of posture and anaesthetic technique on the surgical pleth index. Anaesthesia, 67(5), 508–513.

Ilies, Christoph, Gruenewald, M., Ludwigs, J., Thee, C., Höcker, J., Hanss, R., … Bein, B. (2010). Evaluation of the surgical stress index during spinal and general anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 105(4), 533–537.

Paloheimo, M. P. J., Sahanne, S., & Uutela, K. H. (2010). Autonomic nervous system state: The effect of general anaesthesia and bilateral tonsillectomy after unilateral infiltration of lidocaine. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 104(5), 587–595.

Kallio, H., Lindberg, L. I., Majander, A. S., Uutela, K. H., Niskanen, M. L., & Paloheimo, M. P. J. (2008). Measurement of surgical stress in anaesthetized children. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 101(3), 383–389.

Wennervirta, J. E., Hynynen, M. J., Koivusalo, A.-M., Uutela, K., Huiku, M., & Vakkuri, A. P. (2008). Surgical stress index as a measure of nociception/antinociception balance during general anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 52(8), 1038–1045.

Stress hormones

Funcke, S., Pinnschmidt, H. O., Wesseler, S., Brinkmann, C., Beyer, B., Jazbutyte, V., … Nitzschke, R. (2020). Guiding Opioid Administration by 3 Different Analgesia Nociception Monitoring Indices During General Anesthesia Alters Intraoperative Sufentanil Consumption and Stress Hormone Release: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 130(5), 1264–1273.

Dostalova, V., Schreiberova, J., Bartos, M., Kukralova, L., & Dostal, P. (2019). Surgical pleth index and analgesia nociception index for intraoperative analgesia in patients undergoing neurosurgical spinal procedures: A comparative randomized study. Minerva Anestesiologica, 85(12), 1265–1272.

Chen, X., Thee, C., Gruenewald, M., Ilies, C., Höcker, J., Hanss, R., … Bein, B. (2012). Correlation of surgical pleth index with stress hormones during propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia. The Scientific World Journal, 2012.

Ledowski, T., Pascoe, E., Ang, B., Schmarbeck, T., Clarke, M. W., Fuller, C., & Kapoor, V. (2010). Monitoring of intra-operative nociception: skin conductance and surgical stress index versus stress hormone plasma levels. Anaesthesia, 65(10), 1001–1006.

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