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Gas Exchange and Indirect Calorimetry Publications Reference List

The views expressed in the articles listed herein are those of the respective authors of the articles and may not reflect the opinion of GE Healthcare.


  • Articles on research conducted with GE Healthcare respiratory modules

  • Articles on research conducted with the Deltatrac monitor

  • Articles on research conducted with other or unknown equipment

  • General and editorial articles


Articles on research conducted with GE Healthcare respiratory modules

Ashcraft C.M., et al. Validity Test of a New Open-Circuit Indirect Calorimeter JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 39(6), 738-742 (2015).

Abdo W.F., et al. Increase of oxygen consumption during a progressive decrease of ventilatory support is lower in patients failing the trail in comparison with those who succeed. Anesthesiology, 113, 378-85 (2010).

Bellani G. et al. Increase of Oxygen Consumption during a Progressive Decrease of Ventilatory Support Is Lower in Patients Failing the Trial in Comparison with Those Who Succeed. Anesthesiology 113(2), 378-385 (2010).

Briassouli E., et al. Reliability of E-COVX spirometric measurements after endotracheal suction in critically ill children Arch Dis Child 93, 481 (2008).

Briassoulis G. et al. Malnutrition, nutritional indices, and early enteral feeding in critically ill children. Nutrition 17(7-8), 548-57 (2001).

Briassoulis G. et al. The Effects of Endotracheal Suctioning on the Accuracy of Oxygen Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Production Measurements and Pulmonary Mechanics Calculated by a Compact Metabolic Monitor. Anesthesia and Analgesia 109(3), 873-879 (2009).

Briassoulis G. et al. Influence of different ventilator modes on VO2 and VCO2 measurements using a compact metabolic monitor. Nutrition 25, 11-12 (2009).

Collings N., et al. A repeated measures, randomised cross-over trial, comparing the acute exercise response between passive and active sitting in critically ill patients BMC Anesthesiology, 15(1), (2015).

Donaldson L. et al. Clinical evaluation of a continuous oxygen consumption monitor in mechanically ventilated patients. Anaesthesia 58(5), 455-460 (2003).

McLellan S. et al. Comparison between the Datex-Ohmeda M-COVX metabolic monitor and the Deltatrac II in mechanically ventilated patients. Intensive Care Med 28, 870–876 (2002).

Oczenski W. et al. Automatic tube compensation in patients after cardiac surgery: effects on oxygen consumption and breathing pattern. Crit Care Med. 30(7), 1467-71 (2002).

Oshima T., et al. Fulfilling caloric demands according to indirect calorimetry may be benefical for post cardiac arrest patients under therapeutic hypothermia Resuscitation 88, 81-85 (2015).

Petrova M.V, et al. The use of V02 and VC02 to optimise respiratory support and to wean mechanically ventilated patients after major abdominal surgery Intensive Care Medicine Experimental- ESICM LIVES, 3(1):A315 (2015).

Singer P. et al. Comparison of metabolic monitors in critically ill, ventilated patients. Nutrition 23(3), 281 (2007).

Stuart-Andrews C.R. et al. In vivo validation of the M-COVX metabolic monitor in patients under anaesthesia. Anaesth Intensive Care 35(3), 398-405 (2007).

Stuart-Andrews C.R. et al. Laboratory validation of the M-COVX metabolic module in measurement of oxygen uptake. Anaesth Intensive Care 37(3), 399-406 (2009).

Sundtröm Rehal, M., et al. Measuring energy expenditure in the intensive care unit: a comparison of indirect calorimetry by E-sCOVX and Quark RMR with Deltatrac II in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients Critical Care, 20, 104 (2016).

Tavladaki T., et al. Bioenergetics And Metabolic Patterns in Early Onset Severe Sepsis Or Trauma Intensive Care Medicine Experimental, ESICM LIVES, 3(1):A43 (2015)

Wlodarski R., et al. Influence of septic shock on energy expenditure in critically ill ICU patients, estimated with indirect calorimetry Crit Care, 14, 547 (2010).

Articles on research conducted with the Deltatrac monitor

Alves V.G.F. et al. Assessement of resting energy expenditure of obese patients: Comparison of indirect calorimetry with formulae. Clinical nutrition 28(3), 299-304 (2009).

Aron-Wisnewsky J., et al. Nutritional and Protein Deficiencies in the Short Term following Both Gastric Bypass and Gastric Banding PLoS ONE, 11(2), (2016).

Basile-Filho A. et al. An easy way to estimate energy expenditure from hemodynamic data in septic patients. Acta Cirurgica Brasileira 23, 112-117 Suppl.1 (2008).

Berg A., et al. Whole body protein kinetics during hypocaloric and normocaloric feeding in critically ill patients Critical Care, 17, R158 (2013).

Bizouarn P. et al. Comparison between oxygen consumption calculated by Fick‘s principle using a continuous thermodilution technique and measured by indirect calorimetry. Br J Anaesth. 75(6), 719-23 (1995).

Boullata J. et al. Accurate Determination of Energy Needs in Hospitalized Patients. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107(3), 393-401 (2007).

Bracco D. et al. Failure in measuring gas exchange in the ICU. Chest 107(5), 1406-10 (1995).

Brandi L.S. et al. Energy expenditure and severity of injury and illness indices in multiple trauma patients. Critical Care Medicine 27(12), 2684-2689 (1999).

Brandi L.S. et al. Energy Metabolism of Thoracic Surgical Patients in the Early Postoperative Period: Effect of Posture. Chest 109, 630-37 (1996).

Clapis F.C.M. et al. Mechanical ventilation mode (volume × pressure) does not change the variables obtained by indirect calorimetry in critically ill patients. Journal of Critical Care 25(4), 659.e9-659.e16 (2010).

de Klerk G. et al. Serial measurements of energy expenditure in critically ill children: useful in optimizing nutritional therapy? Intensive Care Med 28, 1781–1785 (2002).

De Wit B. et al. Challenge of predicting REE in children undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. Pediatric critical care medicine 11(4), 496-501 (2010).

Dvir D. et al. Computerized energy balance and complications in critically ill patients: an observational study. Clin Nutr 25, 37–44 (2005).

Framson C.M. et al. Energy expenditure in critically ill children. Pediatr Crit Care Med 8, 264–267 (2007).

Graf S., et al. Evaluation of three indirect calorimetry devices in mechanically ventilated patients: Which device compares best with the Deltatrac II®?A prospective observational study. Clin Nutr, 34(1), 60-65 (2015).

Hata J.S. et al. A Prospective, Observational Clinical Trial of Fever Reduction to Reduce Systemic Oxygen Consumption in the Setting of Acute Brain Injury. Neurocritical Care 9(1), (2008).

Heidegger C.P., et al. Optimisation of energy provision with supplemental parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a randomised controlled clinical trial. Lancet 381(9864), 385-393 (2012).

Holzinger U., et al. Resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rates correlate to temperature and outcome after cardiac arrest-a prospective observational cohort study. Critical Care, 19(1), 1 (2015).

Hulst J.M. et al. Adequate feeding and the usefulness of the respiratory quotient in critically ill children. Nutrition 21, 192–198 (2005).

Japur C.C. et al. Harris-Benedict equation for critically ill patients: Are there differences with indirect calorimetry? J Crit Care 24(4), 628.e1-5 (2009).

Japur C.C. et al. Can an adequate energy intake be able to reverse the negative nitrogen balance in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Journal of Critical Care 25(3), 445-450 (2010).

Joosten K.F. et al. Accuracy of an indirect calorimeter for mechanically ventilated infants and children: the influence of low rates of gas exchange and varying FIO2. Crit Care Med 28(8), 3014-8 (2000).

Joosten K.F. et al. Indirect calorimetry in mechanically ventilated infants and children: accuracy of total daily energy expenditure with 2 hour measurements. Clin Nutr 18, 149–152 (1999).

Keinänen O. et al. Calculated versus measured oxygen consumption during and after cardiac surgery. Is it possible to estimate lung oxygen consumption? Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 41(7), 803-9 (1997).

Kiiski R. et al. Hypermetabolism and Efficiency of CO2 Removal in Acute Respiratory Failure. Chest 195, 1198-1203 (1994).

Lei T.H. et al. Effect of Body Weight on Temperature Control and Energy Expenditure in Preterm Infants. Pediatr Neonatol 51(3), 178-81 (2010).

McHoney M. et al. Effect of Laparoscopy and Laparotomy on Energy and Protein Metabolism in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial. The Journal of Pediatrics 157(3), 439-444 (2010).

Oosterveld M.J. et al. Energy expenditure and balance following pediatric intensive care unit admission: a longitudinal study of critically ill children. Pediatr Crit Care Med 7, 147–153 (2006).

Petros S. et al. Validity of an abbreviated IC protocol for measurement of REE in mechanically ventilated and spontaneously breathing critically ill patients. Intensive Care Medicine 27(7), 1164-1168 (2001).

Picolo M.F., et al. Harris-Benedict Equation and Resting Energy Expenditure Estimates in Critically Ill Ventilator Patients Am J Crit Care, 24(1), e21-e29 (2016).

Siirala W. et al. Predictive equations over-estimate the resting energy expenditure in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients who are dependent on invasive ventilation support. Nutrition and Metabolism 7, 70 (2010).

Siirala W., et al. Validation of indirect calorimetry for measurement of energy expenditure in healthy volunteers undergoing pressure controlled non-invasive ventilation support J of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 26(1), 37-43 (Dec 2011).

Singer P. et al. The tight calorie control study (TICACOS): a prospective, randomized, controlled pilot study of nutritional support in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med. 37, 601-609 (2011).

Staudinger T. et al. Comparison of oxygen cost of breathing with pressure-support ventilation and biphasic intermittent positive airway pressure ventilation. Critical Care Medicine 26(9), 1518-1522 (1998).

Strack van Schijndel R.J. et al. Optimal nutrition during the period of mechanical ventilation decreases mortality in critically ill, long-term acute female patients: a prospective observational cohort study. Critical care 13(4), R132 (2009).

Stuart-Andrews C. et al. Non-invasive metabolic monitoring of patients under anesthesia by continuous indirect calorimetry - an in vivo trial of a new method. BJA 98(1), 45-52 (2007).

Sundström M., et al. Approximation of Resting Energy Expenditure in Intensive Care Unit Patients Using the SenseWear Bracelet- A Comparison With Indirect Calorimetry JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr (2016).

Sundström M., et al. Indirect calorimetry in mechanically ventilated patients. A systematic comparison of three instruments. Clin Nutr. 32(1), 118-21 (2012).

Taylor R. et al. Can energy expenditure be predicted in critically ill children? Pediatr Crit Care Med 4, 176–180 (2003).

Turi R.A. et al. Energy metabolism of infants and children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Ann Surg 233, 581–587 (2001).

Vazquez Martinez J.L. et al. Predicted versus measured energy expenditure by continuous, online indirect calorimetry in ventilated, critically ill children during the early postinjury period. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 5(1), 19-27 (2004).

Weijs P.J.M., et al. Early high protein intake is associated with low mortality and energy overfeeding with high mortality in non-septic mechanically ventilated critically ill patients Critical Care, 18, 701 (2014).

Villet S. et al. Negative impact of hypocaloric feeding and energy balance on clinical outcome in ICU patients. Clin Nutr 24, 502–509 (2005).

Walsh T.S. et al. A comparison between the Fick method and indirect calorimetry for determining oxygen consumption in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Crit Care Med. 26(7), 153-4 (1998).

Weintraub V. et al. Changes in Energy Expenditure in Preterm Infants During Weaning: A Randomized Comparison of Two Weaning Methods from an Incubator. Pediatric Research 61(3), 341-4 (2007).

Wells J.C.K. and Fuller N.J. Precision and accuracy in a metabolic monitor for indirect calorimetry. European journal of clinical nutrition 52(7), 536-540 (1998).

White M.S. et al. Energy expenditure in 100 ventilated critically ill children: improving the accuracy of predictive equations. Crit Care Med 28, 2307–2312 (2000).

Zauner A. et al. Weight-adjusted resting energy expenditure is not constant in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Medicine 32(3), 428-434 (2006).

Articles on research conducted with other or unknown equipment

Alberda C. et al. The relationship between nutritional intake and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients: results of an international multicenter observational study. Intensive Care Med 35(10), 1728-37 (2009).

Arabi Y.M., et al.  Permissive Underfeeding or Standard Enteral Feeding in Critically Ill Adults N Engl J Med, 372, 2398-2408 (2015).

Avitzur Y. et al. REE in children with cyanotic and noncyanotic congenital heart disease before and after open heart surgery. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 27, 47–51 (2003).

Braunschweig C., et al. Impact of declines in nutritional status on outcomes in adult patients hospitalized for more than 7 days. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 100(11), 1316-1322 (2000).

Chalela J.A. et al. Acute stroke patients are being underfed. Neurocritical Care 1(3), 331-4 (2004).

Chiaki Inadomi et al. Comparison of oxygen consumption calculated by Fick’s principle (using a central venous catheter) and measured by IC. Journal of Anesthesia 22(2), 163-6 (2008).

Cooney R.N., Frankenfield D.C., Determining energy needs in critically ill patients: equations or indirect calorimeters Current Opinion in Critical Care, 18(2), 174-177 (Apr 2012).

Coss-Bu J.A. et al. Resting energy expenditure in children in a pediatric intensive care unit: comparison of Harris-Benedict and Talbot predictions with indirect calorimetry values. Am J Clin Nutr. 67(1), 74-80 (1998).

De Waele, E., et al. Measuring resting energy expenditure during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation:preliminary clinical experience with a proposed theoretical model Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 59(10), 1296-1302 (2015).

Elke G., et al. Close to recommended caloric and protein intakeby enteral nutrition is associated with betterclinical outcome of critically ill septic patients:secondary analysis of a large internationalnutrition database Critical Care, 18, R29 (2014).

Epstein C.D. et al. Comparison of methods of measurements of oxygen consumption in mechanically ventilated patients with multiple trauma: The Fick method versus indirect calorimetry. Critical Care Medicine 28(5), 1363-1369 (2000).

Flancbaum L. et al. Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and prediction equations in estimating the energy requirements of critically ill patients. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 461–466 (1999).

Ford R.M. et al. Critical care management of patients before liver transplantation. Transplantation Reviews 24(4), 190-206 (2010).

Frankenfield D.C. et al. Validation of a 5-minute steady state indirect calorimetry protocol for resting energy expenditure in critically ill patients. Journal of American College of Nutrition 15(4), 397-402 (1996).

Hart D.W. et al. Energy expenditure and caloric balance after burn: increased feeding leads to fat rather than lean mass accretion. Ann Surg. 235(1), 152-61 (2002).

Hoher J.A. et al. A comparison between ventilation modes: How does activity level affect energy expenditure estimates? Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition 32(2), 176-183 (2008).

Jensen G.L., Wheeler D., A new approach to defining and diagnosing malnutrition in adult critical illness. Curr Opin Crit Care, 18(2), 206-211 (2012).

Kreymann G., et al. Oxygen consumption and resting metabolic rate in sepsis, sepsis syndrome, and septic shock. Critical care medicine, 21(7), 1012-1019 (1993).

Kuslapuu M., et al. The reason for insufficient enteral feeding in an intensive care unit: A prospective observational study. Intensive Crit Care Nurs, 31(5), 309-314 (2015).

Kyle U.G., et al. Is indirect calorimetry a necessity or a luxury in the pediatric intensive care unit? Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 36(2), 177-182 (2012).

MacDonald A. et al. Comparison of formulaic equations to determine energy expenditure in the critically ill patient. Nutrition 19(3), 233-239 (2003).

Marik P.E., et al. Normocaloric versus hypocaloric feeding on the outcomes of ICU patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis Intensive Care Medicine, 42(3), 316-323 (2015).

Masters B. et al. Nutrition support in burns - Is there consistency in practice? Journal of burn care & research 29(4), 561-571 (2008).

McCarthy M.S. Use of indirect calorimetry to optimize nutrition support and assess physiologic dead space in the mechanically ventilated ICU patient: a case study approach. AACN Clinical issues 11(4), 619-30 (2000).

McEvoy C. et al. A Reduced Abbreviated Indirect Calorimetry Protocol Is Clinically Acceptable for Use in Spontaneously Breathing Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury. Nutrition in clinical practice 24(4), 513-519 (2009).

Mehta N.M. et al. Cumulative Energy Imbalance in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: Role of Targeted Indirect Calorimetry. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition 33(3), 336-344 (2009).

Mehta N.M. et al. Energy imbalance and the risk of overfeeding in critically ill children. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 12(4), 398-405 (2011).

Meyer R., et al. The Challenge of Developing a New Predictive Formula to Estimate Energy Requirements in ventilated Critically Ill Children Nutr Clin Pract, 5, 669-676 (2012) formula

Miller K.R. et al. Clinical Trial Report: Parenteral Nutrition in the Critically Ill. Current Gastroenterology Reports 12(4), 231-5 (2010).

Mitsuoka M. et al. Utility of measurements of oxygen cost of breathing in predicting success or failure in trials of reduced mechanical ventilatory support. Respir Care 46(9), 902-10 (2001).

Miwa K. et al. Continuous Monitoring of Oxygen Consumption in Patients Undergoing Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation. Respiration 70, 623–630 (2003).

Moriyama S. et al. Direct expiratory gas analysis after hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 5(3), 150-5 (1999).

Neumayer L. A., et al. Early and sufficient feeding reduces length of stay and charges in surgical patients. Journal of Surgical Research, 95(1), 73-77 (2001).

Pirat A. et al. Comparison of Measured Versus Predicted Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Cancer Patients. Respiratory Care 54(4), 487-494 (2009).

Raynard B. Assessment of energy expenditure in critically ill patients. Nutrition Clinique et metabolisme 23(4), 192-197 (2009).

Ratzlaff R., et al. Mechanically Ventilated, Cardiothoracic Surgical Patients Have Significantly Different Energy Requirements Comparing Indirect Calorimetry and the Penn State Equations. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (2015).

Scheinkestel C.D. et al. Prospective randomized trial to assess caloric and protein needs of critically Ill, anuric, ventilated patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. Nutrition 19(11/12), 909 (2003).

Smallwood C.D., et al. Carbon Dioxide Elimination and Oxygen Consumption in Mechanically Ventilated Children Respiratory Care, 60(5), 718-723 (2015).

Smyrnios N.A., et al. Accuracy of 30-minute indirect calorimetry studies in predicting 24-hour energy expenditure in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 21(3), 168-174 (1997).

Strack van Schijndel R.M.J., et al. Computer-aided support improves early and adequate delivery of nutrients in the ICU The Journal of Medicine, 67(11), 67 (2009).

Tajchman S.K., et al. Validation Study of Energy Requirements in Critically Ill, Obese Cancer Patients JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, (2015).

Wang X., et al. Nutritional Support for Patients Sustaining Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies PLoS ONE, 8(3), e58838 (2013).

Wei X., et al. The Association Between Nutritional Adequacy and Long-Term Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients Requiring Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation: A Multicenter Cohort Study* Critical Care Medicine, 43(8), 1569–1579 (2015).

Weijs P.J.M., et al. Optimal Protein and Energy Nutrition Decreases Mortality in Mechanically Ventilated, Critically Ill Patients A Prospective Observational Cohort Study JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 36(1), 60-68 (2012).

Wooley J.A. Indirect calorimetry: applications in practice. Respir Care Clin N Am. 12(4), 619-33 (2006).

Zijlstra N. et al. 24-hour indirect calorimetry in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Nutr Clin Pract 22(2), 250-5 (2007).

General and editorial articles

AARC Clinical practice guideline: Metabolic measurements using indirect calorimetry During Mechanical Ventilation- 2004 Revision & Update. Revised by McArthur C. Respiratory care 46(9), 1073-1079 (2004).

Ayers P., et al. A.S.P.E.N. Parenteral Nutrition Safety Consensus Recommendations JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr.38, 296-333 (2014).

Berger, M.M., et al. Best timing for energy provision during critical illness Crit Care, 16(2), 215 (2012).

Battezzati A. et al. Indirect calorimetry and nutritional problems in clinical practice. Acta Diabetol 38, 1–5 (2001).

Brandi L.S. et al. Indirect Calorimetry in Critically Ill Patients: Clinical Applications and Practical Advice. Nutrition 13(4), 349-358 (1997).

Briassoulis G., et al. Nutrition Monitoring in the PICU Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, 42, 579-601 (2014).

Choban P., et al. A.S.P.E.N. Clinical Guidelines- Nutrition Support of Hospitalized Adult Patients With Obesity JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutrition 27(6), 714-744 (2013).

Compher C. et al. Best practice methods to apply to measurement of resting metabolic rate in adults: a systematic review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 106(6), 881-903 (2006).

Connor K.A., Nutrition and Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Critical Connections, 10(4), 10-11 (2011).

Cook R.C. et al. Nutritional support of the pediatric trauma patient. Seminars in Pediatric Surgery 9(4), 242-251 (2010).

Fitch C.M.S. et al. The use and interpretation of indirect calorimetry in critically ill patients. Critical Care Medicine 28(4), 1248-1249 (2000).

Flaring U. et al. Nutritional support to patients within the pediatric intensive setting. Pediatric Anesthesia 19(4), 300-312 (2009).

Frainpont V., et al. Energy Estimation and Measurement in Critically Ill Patients JPEN J Parenter Entral Nutr, 37(6), 705-713 (2013).

Fung E.B. Estimating energy expenditure in critically ill adults and children. AACN Clin Issues 11(4), 480-97 (2000).

Guttormsen A.B., et al. Determining energy requirements in the ICU Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care, 17(2), 171-176 (Mar 2014).

Headley J. Indirect Calorimetry - A trend towards continuous metabolic assessment. AACN Clinical issues 14(2), 155-167 (2003).

Hegazi R. A., et al. Evidence-Based Recommendations for Addressing Malnutrition in Health Care: An Updated Strategy From the feed M.E. Global Study Group JAMDA, 15, 544-550, (2014).

Higgins P.A., et al. Assessing Nutritional Status in Chronically Critically Ill Adult Patients RN Am J Crit Care, 15(2), 166–177, (2006).

Hulst J.M. et al. Causes and consequences of inadequate substrate supply to pediatric ICU patients. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 9, 297–303 (2006).

Jannace P.W., et al. Total parenteral nutrition-induced cyclic hypercapnia. Crit Care Med., 16(7), 727-8 (1988).

Jensen G.L., et al. Adult Starvation and Disease-Related Malnutrition A Proposal for Etiology-Based Diagnosis in the Clinical Practice Setting From the International Consensus Guideline Committee JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 34, 2156-2159 (2010).

Joosten K.F. Why indirect calorimetry in critically ill patients: what do we want to measure? Intensive Care Medicine 27(7), 1107- 1109 (2001).

Lev S. et al. Indirect Calorimetry Measurements in the Ventilated Critically Ill Patient: Facts and Controversies—The Heat is On. Critical Care Clinics 26(4), e1-e9 (2010).

Malone A.M., et al. Methods of Assessing Energy Expenditure in the Intensive Care Unit Nutr Clin Pract 17(1), 21-28 (Feb 2002).

McClave S.A., et al. Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 33(3), 277-316 (2009).

McClave S.A. Indirect calorimetry: relevance to patient outcome. Respir Care Clin N Am 12(4), 635-50 (2006).

McClave S.A. et al. Should indirect calorimetry be used as part of nutritional assessment? J Clin Gastroenterol. 33(1), 14-9 (2001).

McClave S.A. and Snider H.L., Invited review: use of indirect calorimetry in clinical nutrition. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 7(5), 207-221 (1992).

Mehta N. M., et al.  Current applications of metabolic monitoring in the pediatric intensive care unit. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 29(3), 338-347 (2014).

Mehta N.M., Optimal Nutritional Therapy for the Critically Ill Child, Critical Connections 10(4), 12-13 (2011).

Miles J.M. Energy Expenditure in Hospitalized Patients: Implications for Nutritional Support. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 8(6), 809-816 (2006).

Moore K., Taking Guesswork Out of Height and Weight, Critical connections, 10(4), 6 (2011).

Port A.M. et al. Metabolic support of the obese intensive care unit patient: a current perspective. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care 13(2), 184-191 (2010).

Preiser JC., et al. Metabolic and nutritional support of critically ill patients: consensus and controversies Critical Care, 19:35 (2015).

Reeves M.M., et al. Variation in the application of methods used for predicting energy requirements in acutely ill adult patients: a survey of practice European J of Clinical Nutrition, 57, 1530-1535 (2003).

Reid C.L., et al. Nutritional requirements of surgical and critically-ill patients: do we really know what they need? Proc Nutr Soc, 63(3), 467-472 (2004).

Schlein K.M., et al. Best Practices for Determining Resting Energy Expenditure in Critically Ill Adults Nutr Clin Pract, 29(1), 44-55 (Feb 2014).

Singer P., et al. Clinical Guide for the Use of Metabolic Carts: Indirect Calorimetry—No Longer the Orphan of Energy Estimation ASPEN 31(1), 30-38, (2015).

Singer P. et al. ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: Intensive care. Clinical Nutrition 28, 387–400 (2009).

Singer P., et al. Simple equations for complex physiology: can we use VCO2 for calculating energy expenditure? Critical Care, 20, 72 (2016).

Skillmann H.E., et al. Nutrition therapy in the critically ill child Current Opinion in Critical Care, 18(2), 192-198 (2012).

Vizzini A. et al. Nutritional support in head injury. Nutrition 27(2), 129-132 (2011).

Wischmeyer P., Parenteral nutrition and calorie delivery in the ICU: controversy, clarity, or call to action? Curr Opin Crit Care, 18(2),164-73 (2012).

  • Oxygenation
  • Respiratory
  • Nutrition
  • Intensive care
  • Clinical